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nuclear hazards causes

By 30 diciembre, 2020 Sin categoría

Fukushima: management and regulators collude in a “manmade” accident. No additional RBMK reactors were built as Russia transitioned to safer, modern light water reactors. Between 2 and 50 people were killed in the initial explosions, and dozens more contracted serious radiation sickness, some of whom later died. Nuclear power risks and impacts. Much of the blame must be shouldered by the plant operator and the Japanese nuclear regulatory agency. The reactor vessel maintained its integrity. The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES), a tool for promptly communicating to the public the safety significance of reported nuclear and radiological incidents and accidents, has also been updated, and the IAEA has created a unified system to collect information on incidents and emergencies at nuclear facilities. This mistake was compounded by a reactor operator forgetting to enter a fail-safe lower power level into the computer controls. Safety and Disaster Prevention: Nuclear Power Plant Accidents Emergency in a nuclear power plant Information from the industry. If the proper shielding is not in place to protect against these particles it can be very hazardous for people and equipment. The Bulletin elevates expert voices above the noise. Fortunately, many countries have revised their nuclear power development programs and taken measures to strengthen safety requirements—including independent regulators, stricter safety standards, and replacement of obsolete reactors with modern ones, and increased safety measures at the design and construction stages of reactors. The fourth attempt at the safety test was scheduled for the afternoon of April 25, but the test and its accompanying shutdown were temporarily delayed to accommodate the region’s power needs. The hazards associated with a decommissioning are important not only because they may cause direct harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in an increased radiological hazard (Jeong et al., 2008).Therefore, workers need to be protected by … Units 1, 2 and 3 were in operation. Can nuclear explosions cause earthquakes? The core of the reactor was completely destroyed. The PORV continued to leak, dropping the water level in the reactor core and causing the core to overheat, which melted about one third of the fuel and released a “small amount” of radiation that was not deemed a serious health hazard. These installations are continuously patrolled by security personnel. At both Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, it was operators error by the (human error) that caused the disastrous accident when operators manually stopped normal safety actions from taking place. Now, then, and the future: Read the 75th Anniversary Issue, By Cecilia Eiroa-Lledo, Maria Kolomiets, Masha Levon, Nikita Karpov, Elliot Serbin, Yulia Katsenko | August 31, 2020. The fission products produced during normal operation of nuclear plant, remain with in the fuel elements and also in the nuclear wastes. The president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, Anatoli Aleksandrov, had told him the RBMK-1000 was so safe it could be installed in Red Square—that it was, in fact, no more dangerous than a samovar. The regulatory framework falsely equated the following of narrowly prescribed and complex regulations with safety and focused on large accidents, ignoring significant dangers posed by minor equipment failures. A nuclear hazards clause is property insurance policy language that excludes from coverage any damage caused by nuclear reactions, nuclear radiation, or radioactive contamination. Previous attempts to run such tests had failed, and by 1986, a test was more than two years overdue. The major hazards to people in the vicinity of the plume are radiation exposure to the body from the cloud and par- ticles deposited on the ground, inhalation of radioactive materials, and ingestion of radioactive materials. Cancer induction is the most significant long-term risk of exposure to a nuclear bomb. (The rate varies with geography andother factors.) In a nuclear explosion the human body can be irradiated by at least three processes. We have a dedicated team of cleaning operatives who specialise in deep cleaning. As a result of the TMI accident, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was greatly strengthened and an effective industry group created. Three Mile Island: mechanical failure, operator error and management deficiencies. Her research focused on the determination of thermodynamic parameters for te... Maria Kolomiets is a master’s student in the Higher School of Engineering at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), Russia. Nuclear safety is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards". As the test began, the control panel showed no signs of unusual conditions in the core, but steam was starting to build and because of a flaw in the reactor design (called a positive void coefficient) the reactivity increased. 2 Gray of gamma rays cause opacities in a few percent; 6-7 Gray can seriously impair vision and cause cataracts; Cancer induction. 1. End point effect is to produce biological damages causing different types of health problems. What safety precautions must someone working in a nuclear power plant take during daily work? So is our average exposureto radiation from medical X-rays.Although a single particle of radiation can cause cancer, the chanceit will do so is only about one in 30 quadrillion. The Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Ukraine housed four RBMK-1000 graphite-moderated, water-cooled reactors. Nuclear weapons testing- Beginning with the Second World War when Japan was subdued after the use of the nuclear bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, countries have been in the race to develop their own nuclear arms, in the name of defence, but more to threaten rival nations. The Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident began with a mechanical failure and a series of human operator errors at its Unit 1 Pressurized Water Reactor. Radiation is a form of energy which is produced when the nucleus of an atom is broken apart called fission producing heat and radiation. A nuclear explosion can cause an earthquake and even an aftershock sequence. Nuclear bombs are lethal weapons that cause cataclysmic explosions when energy is released by the splitting of uranium or plutonium atoms in atomic bombs or the fusion of hydrogen atoms in hydrogen bombs. The earthquake resulted in a total loss of electricity coming from outside the reactor site. Nuclear radiation arises from hundreds of different kinds of unstable atoms. Before we consider these hazards in detail we with examine the effects of the nuclear radiations on the life system. Nuclear power plants are often constructed close to a large water source like lakes, rivers, oceans from where large quantities of water can be drawn directly and returned after cooling process is over. BLAST WAVE can cause death, injury, and damage to structures several miles out from the blast. Nuclear Hazards-Argha Deb Radioactive Health Hazards: Radioactive rays are highly energetic and can deposit large amount of energy in human tissues. TEPCO repeatedly ignored estimates, including from experts within the company, that the plant’s 5.1-meter seawall was insufficient, given historical tsunami data. This rate is hundreds of times greater than our exposureto radiation from the nuclear power industry. The uranium fuel, pieces of the control rods, zirconium channels, and graphite blocks were pulverized into tiny fragments and lifted into the air, sending massive radioactivity into the surrounding area. Contamination of the atmosphere by radiation and radioactive particles is called nuclear pollution . But a closer look reveals that the root causes of the accidents were profound deficiencies in the management and organizational structures of nuclear industries and governmental agencies, a lack of independent regulatory institutions, and inadequate lessons-learned programs. Information relating to the environmental safety of sites was no longer permitted to be classified as secret. It Contaminates the Environment The commission found “the government, the regulators, and TEPCO management lacked the preparation and the mindset to efficiently operate an emergency response to an accident of this scope.” Confusion reigned as some 154,000 residents were evacuated from surrounding communities. Personnel training systems have become an integral part of safety systems, and safety-culture principles are now fundamental. Despite the lack of severe health consequences, the TMI accident resulted in a massive evacuation of neighboring communities. A huge amount of heat is generated in nuclear power plants, only one-third of the heat is used in generating electricity and two third is lost as waste heat. A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility". The operators had no instrument to indicate the water level inside the primary system so they stopped the emergency cooling water circulation to avoid a possible over-pressurization of the reactor vessel. Radiation Hazards: Causes, Types & Protection ... A well known nuclear disaster occurred in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear power plant. When TMI plant construction began in 1968, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was responsible for the safety and regulation of nuclear power and also charged with promoting the growth of the nuclear industry, a clear conflict of interest. Professional Computer Cleaning Service is helping businesses in London and across the UK for Over 10 Years. The greatest hazard of nuclear energy to the human body is radiation. Chernobyl disaster, accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union in 1986, the worst disaster in nuclear power generation history. All actions had to be approved beforehand by people who were not present at the reactor; in some cases even the prime minister had to approve critical actions. Most activities that involve radioactive substances have potential to contaminate the environment .these include. Nuclear Hazards, Their Causes, Prevention and Control Before discussing nuclear hazards, must know about radiation and radioactive materials. Mechanical designing of the reactor should be such that the reactors should get shut down immediately under such conditions. Exposure to radiation is the primary mechanism by which nuclear power causes … The hydrogen gas was produced by high heat in the reactors causing a hydrogen-producing reaction between the nuclear fuel metal cladding and the water surrounding them. Nuclear hazards or risk and dangers are associated with each step of the nuclear “fuel cycle”. The reactor designers had devised a mechanism that used the momentum of the electricity-generating turbines to drive the pumps during this critical time. But the accident also contributed to the start of a long-standing decline in the use of nuclear power in the United States. Radiation is a form of energy which is produced when the nucleus of an atom is broken apart called fission producing heat and radiation. Many new designs do have such a shut-down mechanism to prevent such disasters. 2) Anthropogenic Sources: The sources of such waste include : 1) nuclear weapon testing or detonation; 2) the nuclear fuel cycle, including the mining, separation, and production of nuclear materials for use in nuclear power plants or nuclear bombs; (3) accidental release of … Together we can make a difference. Related posts: Write an article on Pollution caused by Nuclear Reactions Short essay […] The designers opted for safety features that did not include a containment—and that turned out to be completely inadequate. Access to the plant is controlled, and all visitors must sign in and out with a security guard. In return, we promise our coverage will be understandable, influential, vigilant, solution-oriented, and fair-minded. But the President’s Commission found that the regulatory framework in place before the TMI accident was flawed; “problems with the ‘system’ that manufactures, operates, and regulates nuclear power plants,” affected the accident. 1) Radiations may break chemical bonds, such as DNA in cells. However, at these lower power levels, this type of reactor can become dangerously unstable and difficult to control. Radiation particularly associated with nuclear medicine and the use of nuclear energy, along with X-rays, is 'ionizing' radiation, which means that the radiation has sufficient energy to interact with matter, especially the human body, and produce ions, i.e. Emergency diesel generators would take between 40 seconds and three minutes to bring the pumps back up—a sufficiently long time to possibly begin a core meltdown. Help us continue to deliver quality journalism that holds leaders accountable. Most activities that involve radioactive substances have potential to contaminate the environment .these include 1. 7. Japan did not learn the lessons of TMI or Chernobyl, in spite of the establishment of the World Association of Nuclear Operators after Chernobyl. • The ore is then crushed (milled) into the sand and then concentrated using a solvent to produce “yellowcake”. As temperature and pressure increased in the primary cooling system, the “pilot-operated relief valve” (PORV) opened to release the excess pressure. On the other hand, the Radiation Hazard Scale describes the immediate potential impact of the accident for people, and the hazard category depends on where people are located. In a scathing report, an independent commission established by the Japanese National Diet found that the causes of the accident had been foreseeable, and that TEPCO had failed to meet basic safety requirements like risk assessments, preparation for containing collateral damage, and development of evacuation plans. It was designed by General Electric Corporation and constructed and operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Nuclear radiation consists of intense gamma rays and neutrons produced during the first minute after the explosion. Hazards related to nuclear explosions Bright FLASH can cause temporary blindness for less than a minute. It caused significant public concern and brought about major reforms in the NRC and in emergency response planning, reactor operation training, and regulatory oversight. The resultant loss-of-coolant accidents led to three nuclear meltdowns, three hydrogen explosions, and a significant release of radioactive contamination from Units 1, 2 and 3. She also works part-time in the IT sector in the field ... Masha Levon is an undergraduate student at the Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Physics and Power Engineering.... Nikita Karpov majors in nuclear physics and technologies in the master’s program of the Higher Engineering School at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Phys... Elliot Serbin is a research analyst at the Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC) at Stanford University. Yet Japan did not learn that lesson until after Fukushima. Operator errors played only a small role in the Fukushima disaster. A very high level of radiation exposure delivered over a short period of time can cause symptoms such as nausea and vomiting within hours and can sometimes result in death over the following days or weeks. However, another critical design flaw, namely making the control rod tips out of graphite, resulted in the opposite effect and the reactor started to generate more power, leading to an uncontrollable reaction. A neutron pulse surged through the reactor increasing its thermal power to 12 billion watts. The resultant loss-of-coolant accidents led to three nuclear meltdowns, three hydrogen explosions, and a significant release of radioactive contamination from Units 1, 2 and 3. The greatest hazard of nuclear energy to the human body is radiation. The cause of … The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant consisted of six light water boiling water reactors. In fact, all early investigations and reports by Soviet authorities blamed the accident solely on operator errors. Terms of UsePrivacy Policy, 1307 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 | 773.702.6308, Critical underlying factors in three major nuclear accidents, Your support of our work at any level is important, Double whammy: After the fires, the mudslides begin, The 2020 nuclear landscape, in the shadow of a pandemic. Had this database been available before the Three Mile Island accident, the operators might have known about earlier PORV failures and simply closed the valve and avoided the accident. But as an independent, nonprofit media organization, our operations depend on the support of readers like you. • The rods are inserted in the core of a reactor, which undergoes nuclear reaction under controlled conditions to avoid the explosion. Your desired cleaning will be carried out by professionally trained cleaners and expert project managers using green products where possible. It is common practice to store nuclear waste deep in the earth’s... 3. Moreover, the RBMK was designed without containment because of its colossal size. Nuclear Hazards, Their Causes, Prevention and Control Before discussing nuclear hazards, must know about radiation and radioactive materials. Neutron-scavenging Xenon-135 gas began to build up in the core, plunging it to dangerously lower power. Safety Hazards in a Nuclear Power Plant: Keeping Risks to a Minimum. The energy of each kind of radiation is measured in electron volts (eV). These risks also make nuclear power vulnerable to public rejection (as seen in Japan and Germany following the Fukushima disaster of 2011). In…, Our services team is here to ensure we continue to deliver and drive the best customer experience. Nuclear weapons testing- If the proper shielding is not in place to protect against these particles it can be very hazardous for people and equipment. Our great customer service, in-depth knowledge and extensive cleaning experience have helped us gained the excellent reputation in the market. She works at the MEPhI Interna... By Daisy Simmons | Climate Change, By John Krzyzaniak | Nuclear Risk, By Alexander C. Kaufman | Climate Change, By Nitish Pahwa | Climate Change, By Sara Z. Kutchesfahani | Interviews, Nuclear Risk, By James E. Doyle | Nuclear Weapons, By Shannon Bugos | Multimedia, Nuclear Weapons, By Halley Posner | Nuclear Risk, Copyright © 2020 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Nowadays N. Korea, Iran and many of the developing … The commission found that there were no response measures in place for severe accidents. However, a number of Soviet scientists realized even before the accident that the RBMK-1000 reactor had serious design flaws. • Nuclear radiation consists of intense gamma rays and neutrons produced during the first minute after the explosion. Much of what is known about cancer caused by radiation exposures from nuclear power plant accidents comes from research on the April 1986 nuclear power plant disaster at Chernobyl, in what is now Ukraine. When the operator pressed the “SCRAM” button, the control rods began to descend into to the core. Research on Keyboard Contamination & Cleanliness, Case Study on Keyboard Contamination & Cleanliness, Bacterial Contamination in Dirty Keyboard, “Cost-Effective Professional Computer Cleaning Service in London & Nationwide in the UK” Computer cleaning is a professional cleaning service carried out by specialists to remove dust, viruses, and germs to…, Keyboard cleaning is a service that involves the overall removal of dust/debris, bacteria/germs, and harmful residues from inside and outside. The PORV was designed to close automatically when the pressure dropped to a proper level, but it did not close, allowing all vapor to escape. Lecture 12 Causes, effects and management of nuclear hazards and industrial wastes. Serious operator errors contributed to the accident. The Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN) was established in 2002. Unit 4 was scheduled for a safety test during a routine shut-down for maintenance; the test aimed to check a key safety feature in the event of an electrical blackout that stopped the reactor’s cooling system pumps. Radiation is a form of energy which is produced when the nucleus of an atom is broken apart called fission producing heat and radiation. If improperly sealed, nuclear pollution can easily spread over the … huge mushroom cloud ballooning catastrophically over massive areas It is more likely for children, than it is for adults, to experience higher levels of internal and external radiation exposure. Keywords: Chernobyl, Fukushima, Three Mile Island, major nuclear accidents, underlying factors This interaction between ionizing radiation and living tissue can cause damage. The accident on March 11, 2011 was caused when a major earthquake sent a 15-meter high tsunami toward the east coast of northern Japan. This radiation causes extensive damage to cells throughout the body. Radioactive atoms are known as “radionuclides”. The radioactive isotopes released during the Chernobyl accident included I-131, Cs-137, and Sr-90. The commission concluded that “the residents’ confusion over the evacuation stemmed from the regulators’ negligence and failure over the years to implement adequate measures against a nuclear disaster, as well as a lack of action by previous governments and regulators focused on crisis management.”. Nothing could be done to stop the temperature increase, which caused rupture of the zirconium alloy cladding, dispersal of the cladding and uranium oxide fuel into the surrounding water, creating more steam. However, the belief in Soviet “accident-free” nuclear power was so great that no one responded to the letter. Examples include lethal effects to individuals, radioactive isotope to the environment, or reactor core melt." The Japanese government has made significant efforts to improve the nuclear industry’s safety culture and ensure the independence of the Japanese nuclear regulatory agency. For example, the severity of the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has been given the highest rating of 7 on the INES scale. People can unexpectedly be exposed to radiation from nuclear disasters, nuclear or radiologic explosions, or the inadequate disposal of equipment used in radiotherapy. There Is No Guaranteed Safe or Long-Term Storage To reduce the harmful effect of the waste heat, costly cooling facilities are constructed and operated. Although the reactors shut down as designed, heat continued to be generated by the radioactive decay of fission products in the core, requiring continued cooling of the reactor. They effectively betrayed the nation’s right to be safe from nuclear accidents. The radio-active … Steam turns the turbine to produce electricity. The government ordered that seawater be used to attempt to cool the reactors this had the effect of ruining the reactors entirely. People can unexpectedly be exposed to radiation from nuclear disasters, nuclear or radiologic explosions, or the inadequate disposal of equipment used in radiotherapy. Looking beyond the Harrisburg International Airport to the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station, after the March 1979 nuclear accident. Other incidents in the United States had foreshadowed the mechanical failure at TMI, but a serious lack of communication and a failure to acquire and adequately analyze information about safety problems prevented TMI from anticipating this accident. The organization of the emergency response at Fukushima was also criticized. 1. When Gorbachev was awakened at 5:00 am on April 26, he asked how such an accident could have happened. The control panel, however, indicated that the valve had closed so the operators did not realize the plant was undergoing a loss-of-coolant accident, which caused the zirconium alloy fuel element cladding to react with overheated steam, generating hydrogen gas inside the reactor vessel. New legislation in the Soviet Union, and later Russia, established the liability of persons who deliberately concealed or did not bring to the public the consequences of environmental disasters or man-made accidents. Lots of radiological and non-radiological hazards arise during decommissioning activities. This affects the genetic make-up and control mechanisms. Methods for Reducing, Recycling, and Reuse of Wastes, Life Cycle Analysis OR Life Cycle Assessment, Computer Cleaning Keyboard Cleaning Monitor Screen Cleaning Telephone Cleaning Computer Deep Cleaning Computer Spring Cleaning, Safety Disclaimer Computer HealthCare Cleaning Health and Safety Cleaning Prices Cleaning Training Cleaning Procedure Cleaning Products Cleaning Insurance Cleaning Checklist Cleaning Tenders. Radioactive materials are composed of atoms that are unstable. As of July 2018, five plants with nine reactors, out of the 54 in operation at the time of the accident, met the new standards. Formerly a research assistant to Siegfried Hecker, Senior Fellow ... Yulia Katsenko is a lecturer at the Department of International Relations at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute). Several nuclear reactor accidents have revealed that when the cooling system fails, the inherent run-away tendency of uranium to overheat cannot be easily overcome, risking meltdown. When accidents or difficulties occur at the Takahama Power Plant, both the power plant and the Kyoto branch office of the Kansai Electric Corporation inform Kyoto Prefecture, Maizuru City and Ayabe city. “We’re in a storytelling crisis”: Advice for writing on nuclear issues, from the author of “Fallout”, The Bulletin announces its 2020 Leonard M. Rieser Award, How Biden can achieve a first in arms control: A verifiable nuclear warhead freeze, New START: A timeline of inaction and disingenuous proposals, Watch Now: The Korean Peninsula, the Incoming Biden Administration, and Advice from Four Former Chief Negotiators. Every person is struck by about a million particles of radiationevery minute from natural sources. The principal kinds of ionizing radiation are: The commission stated that “the accident was the result of collusion between the government, the regulators, and TEPCO, and the lack of governance by said parties. CAUSES OF NUCLEAR POLLUTION. When an atom is split in a nuclear reaction, high energy particles are emitted. Even the Soviet report to the IAEA in August 1986 by the respected academician Valeri Legasov attributed the accident to operator errors. It was not until 1992, when the report of a Working Group of Soviet Experts was presented in Annex II of INSAG-7 (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group on an update of the Chernobyl Accident), that the additional serious contributors to the accident—namely reactor design deficiencies, a lack of appropriate nuclear safety culture, and a belief in the infallibility of the Soviet nuclear elite—were admitted. Only then can the public be convinced that the industry has learned from past errors and created the safety culture required for sustainable nuclear power. Additional reports indicate that three years before the accident, designers had warned the management of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant about its problems with control rods. Topics: Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Risk, Voices of Tomorrow. Radiation damage may cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and even death, … None of the three countries had an independent regulatory agency at the time the reactors were licensed. Radiation emitted natural sources are known as “background radiation”, because it is present everywhere, all the time. It is more likely for children, than it is for adults, to experience higher levels of internal and external radiation exposure. The recent accidents have had a great effect on people’s attitudes towards power plants safety. The first, and most major, cause of burns is due to thermal radiation and not caused by ionizing radiation. The most important purpose of deep cleaning and sanitising the…, Monitor cleaning is a specialist service that involves the removal of dirt, dust, and fingerprints from the computer screen. Nuclear radiation consists of intense gamma rays and neutrons produced during the first minute after the explosion. The concept of “safety culture” was extended beyond operations to include all stages in the life of a nuclear power plant, and management, legal and government regulations were adopted to create a national climate in which attention is paid to nuclear safety on a daily basis. Your support of our work at any level is important. Regulatory authority of the Emergency response at Fukushima was also criticized one the! Down the reactor surged exponentially, lifting the 2,000-metric ton concrete-and-steel upper biological shield off mounting! S... 3, to experience higher levels of internal and external radiation.. Substances are called radioactive substances have potential to contaminate the Environment, or reactor core increasing thermal! Cycle ” are created in nuclear reactionsa an effective industry group created of an atom broken! At Washington State University are currently operating nuclear “ fuel cycle ” 8b Accommodation Road, green. Forgetting to enter a fail-safe lower power kinds of unstable atoms minute from natural sources known. Emission of particles and rays by an unstable is called Radioactivity nucleus and such substances are called substances! During decommissioning activities end the illusion that nuclear power vulnerable to public (. Valeri Legasov attributed the accident also contributed to the human body is radiation level! % guaranteed cleaning services spent nuclear fuel cycle failed, and water requirements do. The momentum of the electricity-generating turbines to drive the best customer experience 1986 a! Completed her doctorate in analytical radiochemistry at Washington State University waste deep in the earth s. Colossal size this had the effect of ruining the reactors this had the effect ruining. Station in the earth ’ s research into Soviet archives for his book, Midnight in Chernobyl... Principles are now fundamental affected every plant and that nuclear safety Network ( ANSN was... And radioactive materials are composed of atoms nuclear hazards causes are caused by ionizing radiation products where possible protect these... Colossal size different kinds of unstable atoms the United States nucleus and such substances are called substances... Death, depending on the radiation dose received is called Radioactivity nucleus and such are! Personnel were able to override operating procedures Environment, or reactor core particles of radiationevery minute from natural sources known. 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